Takaful is a type of Islamic insurance that operates on the principles of cooperation, mutual guarantee, and risk-sharing based on Sharia or Islamic religious law. It provides financial protection to its participants against loss or damage in various areas, including health, life, and general insurance needs. Takaful was introduced as an alternative to conventional insurance, as it adheres to Islamic principles prohibiting interest, gambling, and uncertainty.
What is Takaful?
Takaful is a joint guarantee system where participants pool their contributions into a fund to financially support and protect each other.
The contributions form the takaful fund, which a takaful operator manages. In the event of a claim, funds from the takaful fund are used to compensate the affected participants. Takaful operates based on tabarru (donation) principles and mutual cooperation, where all participants collectively share the risk.
Principles of Takaful
Takaful operates based on cooperative mutual assistance, where participants pool their contributions to support each other in need. The primary objective of Takaful is to provide financial protection against specified risks and uncertainties.
Takaful differs from conventional insurance in an operational framework. Conventional insurance is based on risk transfer, while Takaful operates on mutual cooperation and shared responsibility among participants.
Here are some of the main principles on which Takaful rests:
- Islamic Cooperative Principles
Takaful operates on cooperation and mutual assistance principles, aligning with the Islamic concept of “Takaful” (solidarity). Participants come together to support one another during times of financial need.
- Prohibition of Riba (Interest)
Takaful strictly avoids interest-based transactions, considered exploitative in Islamic finance.
- Prohibition of Gharar (Uncertainty)
Takaful aims to eliminate contract uncertainty and ambiguity, ensuring transparent terms for all participants.
- Prohibition of Maisir (Gambling)
Takaful rejects any form of gambling or games of chance in its operations.
How Does Takaful Work?
Participants make regular contributions which are treated as donations to the takaful fund. The amount of contribution depends on the type of coverage and individual circumstances. A takaful operator manages the fund and charges a fee to cover operational costs.
When a participant faces a loss or damage, they can claim the takaful fund. If the claim is valid, the funds required to compensate the participant will be drawn from the takaful fund. After setting aside provisions for future claims, any remaining surplus belongs to the participants and may be distributed as cash dividends or used to reduce future contributions.
Takaful vs. Conventional Insurance
The differences between Takaful and conventional insurance are rooted in their underlying principles and operational mechanisms.
Compliance with Sharia Law
Takaful adheres to Islamic principles, while conventional insurance does not. Traditional insurance often involves elements such as interest, uncertainty, and gambling, which are considered non-compliant with Sharia.
Risk-Sharing vs. Risk-Transfer
In Takaful, the risk is shared among participants, promoting mutual cooperation. In contrast, conventional insurance involves risk transfer from the insured to the insurer.
Ownership of the Fund
Participants in Takaful retain an ownership interest in the takaful fund, while in conventional insurance, the insurer owns the funds.
Takaful funds are invested in Sharia-compliant assets, ensuring adherence to Islamic principles, whereas conventional insurance companies may invest in various assets, including interest-bearing securities.
Takaful in the Global Market
The global Takaful insurance market has grown steadily, reflecting its increasing popularity. As of 2020, the market was valued at $24.85 billion, and it is projected to reach $97.17 billion by 2030, with a CAGR (compound annual growth rate) of 14.6% from 2021 to 2030.
Takaful’s appeal extends beyond the Muslim population, with non-Muslims also showing interest in its ethical and cooperative principles. As a pioneer in Islamic finance, Malaysia has been a significant player in promoting Takaful insurance. In Malaysia, the first-ever Islamic insurance company, Syarikat Takaful Malaysia Bhd, was established in 1984.
Halal Insurance Meeting Needs of Muslims
Takaful is a unique form of insurance that aligns with Islamic principles, providing a platform for cooperation and risk-sharing among participants. Its principles differentiate it from conventional insurance, which often involves elements deemed non-compliant with Sharia. As Takaful continues to gain popularity, it plays a significant role in the global insurance market, meeting the needs of Muslim and non-Muslim customers alike.